The other notable absentee from the funeral was Joan Sims, who "stayed in her home and spent the day drinking, reading old letters from Hattie and wallowing in self pity", according to Merriman. Kenneth Williams was deeply saddened by the loss of his friend, and wrote that "all the chums have died I fear I am one of them". Jacques, on herself . The writer Susan Leckey described Jacques as "one of the best-loved British comedy stars",  while Jacques's obituarist in The Times observed that "she was invariably successful" at making people "laugh with, rather than at you".
Jacques's biographer, Francis Gray, highlighted two aspects of the actress's abilities; in her appearances in the sequence of post-war Dickens adaptations Nicholas Nickleby , Oliver Twist , Scrooge and Pickwick Jacques "reflected her talent for larger-than-life comedy which never lost its grip on humanity", while in other films, such as Mother Riley Meets the Vampire , she displayed "a broader comic mode".
In her later career Jacques showed "a comic talent of extraordinary versatility. In Sykes her performance had to be a foil for the main character; in the Carry Ons she blossomed". Gray observes that "Jacques is enduringly associated with the role of hospital matron"  and her portrayal of the character in five films had a lasting impact on both her legacy and on the role and view of Matrons in the National Health Service. Alan Simpson , the co-writer of Hancock , enjoyed writing for Jacques, and thought that she was "almost like a fella in terms of playing comedy; you didn't write for her thinking she's a woman so we've got to write the feminine point of view.
That made it easier for us". She concentrated on the script and its interpretation instead of winning easy laughs by playing 'the fattie'. Morwenna Banks and Amanda Swift consider Jacques to have been "unimaginatively cast as the 'fat person'" in ITMA ,  while in Sykes , her weight was rarely referred to—and Jacques said that Sykes "hardly ever made jokes about my size which was a refreshing change". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ted thought the laughs would come on the size gags but, being radio, and coupled with the fact my voice didn't have the timbre of a 'heavy', that didn't really work out A large lady with a little voice hit the spot, so 'Sophie Tuckshop' was born—the terrible child who never stopped eating".
I'm just a helpless little kitten. I'm pathologically shy". His father Joseph Rochester Jaques was a billiard room manager from Northumberland who married Florence King, the daughter of a Devon-born bookseller. Her chosen book was The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations and her luxury item was a photograph and recording of her family. In total there were seven series and two Christmas specials of Sykes , ending in November The Daily Telegraph.
Gloucestershire Echo. British Film Institute.
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Retrieved 18 July The Times. Martin's Theatre: Bells of St. The Manchester Guardian. Retrieved 27 October The Sunday Times. Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 12 December British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 25 November Sevenoaks Chronicle. Sevenoaks, Kent. Archived from the original on 10 June Daily Express. Retrieved 26 November Press Association. Daily Post. BBC: Wales. Retrieved 25 September Daily Mail.
Western Mail. Daily Mirror. The Independent. Sunday Life. The Scotsman. The Spectator. The Guardian. Western Morning News. Plymouth, Devon. Nursing Times. Banks, Morwenna ; Swift, Amanda London: Pandora Press. Barfe, Louis Turned Out Nice Again: the story of British light entertainment. London: Atlantic Books. Briggs, Asa The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Debenham, Warren Laughter on record: a comedy discography.
Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. London: Hansom Books. Foster, Andy; Furst, Steve London: Virgin Books. Gifford, Denis London: B. The Golden Age of Radio: an illustrated companion. London: Batsford Books. Goddard, Simon 24 April Mozipedia: The Encyclopaedia of Morrissey and the Smiths. London: Ebury Publishing. Gray, Frances Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. A Historical Dictionary of British Women. London: Routledge. Herbert, Ian London: Pitman Publishing.
Joyce, Michael Football League Players' Records to Nottingham: SoccerData Tony Brown. Kavanagh, Ted London: Woburn Press. Leckey, Susan In Hartley, Cathy ed. Le Mesurier, John A Jobbing Actor. London: Sphere Books. Lewisohn, Mark London: BBC Books. London: Time Out. Mayer, Geoff Guide to British Cinema.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. McCann, Graham Do You Think That's Wise? The life of John Le Mesurier. London: Aurum Press. Merriman, Andy The obvious social opinion which values appearance higher than reality, is uttered by Lady Bracknell in the following quote:. Upon what grounds may I ask? Algernon is an extremely, I may almost say an ostentatiously, eligible young man.
He has nothing, but he looks everything. What more can one desire? The governess of the Victorian Age is usually single, earns her own living and has quite a difficult and ambiguous social position. She is part of the family while at the same time being a servant. In a minute of inattention while looking after the baby, she placed the manuscript in the perambulator and put the baby in the handbag instead.
Supposedly because she did not fulfil the expectations of a governess, Miss Prism never returned home, and thus Lady Bracknell's behaviour about the presence of Miss Prism in Jack's house is justified.
The butlers Lane and Merriman are also perfect examples of Victorian butlers in that they wittily antagonise their masters. Lane seems to be equally dandyish as Algernon and parodies the type of Victorian butler whose mind is sharper than his master's - as we see in the very first lines of the play:. According to Longman's Dictionary of English Language and Culture, identity is defined as " who or what a particular person or a thing is " For a better understanding, more concepts of "identity" are necessary. For a more philosophical approach, "identity" is described as " In personal identity the concern has been to determine whether anything in the body or mind remains constant; philosophers have reached no general agreement on this point.
The term identity has also become increasingly important in modern psychology, largely through the work of Erik Eriksson. He has used the term to designate a sense of self that develops in the course of a man's life and that both relates him to and sets him apart from his social milieu. Identity is not merely a biological or personal issue, it has a clear social dimension. It has become a recognized result of social studies that people 's identity changes with social settings, social role and group behaviour mechanism In Algernon and Jack kinds of split personalities can be determined.
The term "split personality" is not to be seen in the medical sense of mental illness, since in such a case, the affected persons do not have control over their personalities. In the play both have consciously created their double identities and even cultivate them within the social environment and use them consciously as an alibi to escape any social obligations whenever they feel uncomfortable. Algernon's attempts to get to know who Cecily is, lead to the revelation about "Ernest" and "Jack":.
Well, my name is Ernest in town and Jack in the country, and the cigarette case was given to me in the country. Worthing, there is some error. I am afraid that the news I have to give you will not altogether please you. You are the son of my poor sister, Mrs. The fact that Jack did not know who he was, can be seen as a sign of a missing identity.
Always looking for his true identity and seeking for his own familiar background, might have been a reason for his unconcerned double life. Jack sometimes left his social role with all its restrictions for a little pleasure, lived a double life without any need for justification - and, different to Oscar Wilde who was imprisoned, was rewarded for what he did.
It could also show a general attitude that predominates the Victorian Society. Algernon's understanding of identity is the following:. You have always told me it was Ernest. I have introduced you to every one as Ernest. You answer to the name of Ernest. You look as if your name was Ernest. You are the most earnest-looking person I ever saw in my life. Here is one of them. Ernest Worthing, B. In his eyes, all that is needed for a new identity are a name, a proper appearance and a business card. Algernon even creates two different identities: Bunbury and Ernest.
Bunbury is his pretext to see friends in Shropshire instead of attending dinner parties. I suspected that, my dear fellow! I have Bunburyed all over Shropshire on two separate occasions. Now, go on. Why are you Ernest in town and Jack in the country? He uses the character of Ernest to gain the opportunity to meet Cecily, although this time he is not escaping any social ties. Jack's frank talk about his double life has given Algernon enough hints to adopt this third identity.
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The investigation of playing and taking roles in life has been a major concern in anthropology, sociology and psychology since the s. In literature, four kinds of role -playing are distinguished:. These four kinds of role playing act together in various genres and literary pieces of the centuries. The ancient concept of playing roles was to pretend to be somebody else. In some ancient plays wooden masks were used to disguise the true character.
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Also, someone plays a role when he behaves according to a certain social environment i. One can describe it as filtering: The person's words, movements and activities are dependent on the surrounding environment. It is also important to mention that playing a role is determined by the goal the role - playing person wants to achieve. Such subjective reasons could for instance be a higher status within society, revenge or other personal reasons such as money or marriage.
These subjective reasons are usually aroused by unsatisfactory situations. For example: Algernon's personal reason to play the role of "Ernest" is to meet Cecily and marry her. Playing a role can simply mean acting and behaving in a certain manner, which is central to the character's identity. This type of role is close to the definition of social roles, which means that a person from a certain social class will usually act, behave and talk according to the rules of this class.
In the play, each character plays different roles: Algernon is on one side the loving and protective nephew of Aunt Bracknell, on the other side a selfish dandy who leads a secret double life from time to time. Jack is the protective uncle who visits his brother every once in a while. Lady Bracknell is, depending on the situation, a self -conscious woman, but also values appearance and style higher than reality, which often creates a comic effect.
The butlers Lane and Merriman behave as ordinary butlers, but also present a cleverness and life attitude which goes beyond their expected social roles. The governess Miss Prism writes a three-volume novel, and Dr. Chasuble is not at all irritated by the fact that two adult men seek to be christened. As we can see from the above mentioned examples, playing roles is an essential feature of the play: The reader expects a character to behave in a certain way, but soon discovers that each character behaves according to situation and partner, and often switches between different roles.
The unexpected reaction of the characters produces the comedic impression of the play. Most people, moreover, have a given name and a family name; a subject of controversy and, sometimes, in the case of personal names, of metaphysical anxiety. Aristotle mentioned, " that someone's forgetting of our name is, however trifling, a legitimate cause of anger " The philosophers of the Ancient Greece, for instance, were very aware of the relation between objects and their names. The fascination for naming things and persons can be traced back over many centuries. In the Renaissance Era, the meaning of names was a matter of mysticism.
It was seen as a divine gift, whereas in the 18th to 20th century names were seen more realistically. Philosophers have asked themselves, " whether the name of a thing is arbitrary or is intrinsically connected to its nature. Another aspect of the relation between name and identity can be found in "Felix Krull" by Thomas Mann.
The protagonist's sister is going to be married and is very fascinated about the change of her name: "How nice it must be to have the 'tonic and restorative' of giving 'oneself a new name and to hear oneself addressed to it'" In Oscar Wilde's play, names play an essential role.
The characters are physically the same, but because they rename themselves, they gain a different identity. There is something in that name that inspires absolute confidence. The moment Algernon first mentioned to me that he had a friend called Ernest, I knew I was destined to love you. Cecily had always dreamed of loving someone with the name "Ernest", and says it is a pity for women who are married to somebody whose name is not "Ernest". To court the two women, John Worthing and Algernon Moncrieff show more effort in adopting the name "Ernest" than to reveal their true identity to them:.
I never go without my dinner. No one ever does, except vegetarians and people like that. Besides I have just made arrangements with Dr. Chasuble to be christened at a quarter to six under the name of Ernest. My dear fellow, the sooner you give up that nonsense the better. I made arrangements this morning with Dr. Chasuble to be christened myself at 5. Gwendolen would wish it.
Besides, I have a perfect right to be christened if I like. There is no evidence at all that I have ever been christened by anybody. I should think it extremely probable I never was, and so does Dr. It is entirely different in your case. You have been christened already. For much of this century the term "Victorian", which literally describes things and events in the reign of Queen Victoria , was associated with ideas of people being "prudish", "repressed" and "old fashioned".
Although such associations have some basis in fact, they do not adequately indicate the nature of this complex, paradoxical age that was seen as a second English Renaissance. Like Elizabethan England, Victorian England saw great expansion of wealth, power and culture. Wilde engaged with and mocked the forms and rules of society. His stance as a dandy and outsider let him use the conventions of a social world for his social drama, which mirrored its values by reinforcing social circumstances and showing the consequences of maintaining ideals.
The fact is constantly mentioned in the more expensive monthly magazines, and has reached the provincial pulpits, I am told … p. The combination of adaptation of and distancing from these norms and moral rules can both result in a well-accepted member of society and promote double moral standards. Oscar Wilde knew much about the late-Victorian high society, because he was an outsider of the world of elegant fashion and society that he frequented. An Irishman of middle -class origin among the English, he gained access to the upper-class worlds of London through his sheer intellectual and artistic brilliance, but he constantly wore the mask of the dandy and the aesthete, and he wrote plays about the impenetrability of the very society that he lived in.
The dualities of society are well reflected in the play. Jack Worthing, a respectable provincial judge of peace, needs to invent a depraved younger brother to justify his frequent trips to his bachelor rooms in London.
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In the same way that Oscar Wilde attempted to live a double life, many people of the Victorian Age, even highly ranking personalities of the public, cultivated their own double lives. What makes the play so special is the double occurrence of this leading of double lives and the similarity between Algernon's and Jack's way of fleeing social restrictions.
James for audiences who lived or shopped there. Society dramas are a mirror in which fashionable audiences could see fashionable images of their own fashionable worlds of homes, dinner parties, country-house weekends, dressing, talking and interclass marriage Oscar Wilde anticipated the major development in the 20th century of using farce as a way of reflecting peculiarities of society. A classical Comedy of Manners satirizes the vain behaviour and hypocritical double moral standards of the upper class, but is at the same time a realistic representation of society and morals.
Wilde does not include the aspect of realism, he did not want to verify the social conditions and manners of the Victorian Age.
The play is, according to critics, a Comedy of Manner which Wilde transforms into a trivial comedy. The pla y reveals much about the habits and manners of the Victorian Age. But that is of course not the reason for the great success of the play.
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Oscar Wilde has satirized lots of things that he has found to be hypocritical or even outrageous. Wilde knew how to make fun of people without offending them, whilst amusing them with the characters they watched on stage. The central point of the play regarding different identities and double lives is the sudden change of roles which is not only restricted to the main protagonists, but concerns all characters of the play. Playing roles occurs in so far that the characters of the play behave according to social rules and concepts on one side, but adopt inappropriate manners in a very overacted way on the other side.
Sudden changes of roles, unexpected reactions in various situations, the earnest involvement of all participants in senseless conversations are closely linked and make the play witty, lively, dynamic, surprising and comic. Sie zitieren mich Anmerkung 7 , aber leider geben Sie den Titel des Buches falsch an Books have a right to an identity, too. K J Katharina Jauch Author. Add to cart. What on earth do you mean? To-morrow, Lane, I'm going Bunburying.
Yes, sir. It is so much more real than life.
According to "The Victorian Web" 8 , social class means: "Class is a complex term, in use since the late eighteenth century, and employed in many different ways. Lane seems to be equally dandyish as Algernon and parodies the type of Victorian butler whose mind is sharper than his master's - as we see in the very first lines of the play: ALGERNON.