Illicit Embrace

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Even after students reported stopping, their cognition did not improve. It's not the first research to find that cannabis use can harm teenage brains.

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They discovered that young people who used marijuana frequently were more likely than non-users to have slightly lower scores on tests of memory, learning new information, and higher-level thinking involving problem solving and processing. Studies have shown that chronic marijuana use affects the same brain structures that are involved with addiction.

Marijuana use disorders are often associated with dependence — in which a person feels withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. It occurs when the brain adapts to large amounts of the drug, requiring more and more to create the desired euphoric effect. Withdrawal symptoms include irritability, mood and sleep difficulties, decreased appetite, cravings, restlessness and physical discomfort that peak within the first week after quitting and last up to two weeks.

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In June, the Food and Drug Administration approved Epidiolex, a purified form of cannibidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, to treat rare and severe forms of epilepsy in kids — the first marijuana-based pharmaceutical to help remedy the condition. The FDA acknowledged that this was a significant advancement in finding proven and safe medical uses for marijuana-based products. Billy Dunn. Caulkins believes that more research needs to be done to see how the stronger newer strains of pot affect the body. This is sort of arrangement provides them with the platform to hide or not fully reveal the kind of activities they undertake, or the income made.

They take advantage of weak laws to hide what they are supposed to be paying to government This is a big problem that is facing African countries.

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We are, therefore, encouraging African countries to review their laws to curtail such excesses by multinationals. What lessons can economies like Rwanda learn when it comes to signing treaties with multinational firms?

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There are a number of lessons and good examples: for instance, in Kenya there are treaties that date back to the 70s that have never been analysed for people to understand what the country has signed itself up for. The first step, therefore, is to really appreciate that some of the treaties that were signed several decades ago are harmful and detrimental to the economies.

Secondly, legislators on the continent must get involved in this conversation and be part of the negotiation process They should not let government technocrats to negotiate and sign treaties without scrutinising them.

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This oversight can help strengthen the process and plug loopholes that promote illicit outflows from African economies. This is important because the legislators are the ones that pass laws that have significant impact on how a government or an economy can run. The third element is for African governments to start showing more political commitments to implementing what is considered as very good sets of recommendations that are being made on these issues.

The Mbeki report is a good example since the panel made good recommendations that can actually help African governments to try and stop illegal outflows and improve agreement negotiations. The African Tax Administrative Forum is another platform, where governments should sign on because it is responsible and involved in developing legislation and policy guidelines with an African perspective.

Illicit Embrace

Therefore, we advise African countries to review all trade treaties but, most importantly, implement the recommendations of Mbeki report, that they have signed up to. There is a charter that all Heads of State have signed up to, committing themselves to working with their parliaments to try and curb outflows. What other suggestions is the Tax Justice Network Africa is bringing to the table? TJNA has also been engaging Members of Parliaments in different African countries to build their skills to understand the technicalities of some of these issues to inform their law making process.

Major public scandals brought to light by the many recent leaks, the Panama Papers and Paradise Papers, exposed how many wealthy individuals and multinational companies are involved in illicit flows, and how a number of countries, including some major economies, are providing systemically institutionalized facilitation of IFF.

No adequate measures are being undertaken in practical ways to combat IFF. On the contrary, whereas the global agreement reached in the SDG process clearly covers tax avoidance by multinational companies, efforts seem underway to redefine IFF to exclude tax avoidance from issues and measures to address IFF.


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